PISA in Focus: leren kinderen in een samenwerkende of eerder in een competitieve omgeving?

Elke maand brengt de OESO een klein focus-rapport uit gebaseerd op PISA-data. Ik was dit even wat uit het oog verloren, maar dit rapport uit juli is bijvoorbeeld zeker interessant. Er wordt ingegaan op de vraag of de sfeer op school eerder samenwerkend of eerder competitief is. Dit zou onder andere een positief of negatieve invloed kunnen hebben op welbevinden, maar ook op de verschillen in resultaten tussen jongens en meisjes.

  • Student co-operation was most prevalent, relative to competition, in Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Georgia, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands and Switzerland, whereas student competition was most prevalent, relative to co-operation, in Brazil, Ireland, Korea, Malta, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • On average across OECD countries, students felt more comfortable in co-operative than in competitive learning environments.
  • A more competitive learning environment was more strongly associated with favourable non-academic outcomes amongst boys than amongst girls.
  • Students who see themselves as competitive, especially those who say they try harder when in competition with others, scored higher in reading than students who perceive themselves as less competitive.

Dit leidt tot de volgende conclusie:

Fruitful and positive learning environments promote co-operative behaviours, but also competitive ones, if only because competition can be thrilling and enjoyable, and a competitive spirit may improve academic performance. For instance, team competitions, which combine both co-operative and competitive behaviours, are exciting and rewarding for participants. However, for teamwork to function successfully, researchers have recommended meeting some conditions, such as ensuring that students acquire leadership and communication skills, making the goals of team members interdependent and establishing some kind of individual accountability. Moreover, if schools and teachers aspire to create gender-neutral learning environments, they may need to avoid excessive competition amongst students.

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