Ontdekte een interessante nieuwe studie van Kuepper-Tetzel en Gardner waarbij in 2 aparte experimenten gekeken werd, wat het effect was van uitgestelde cijfers (mark witholding) bij universiteitsstudenten. De redenering is dat als je de punten eerst geeft of tegelijk met de feedback, dat deze feedback dan nog nauwelijks aandacht krijgt.
Hoe pakte men de twee experimenten aan? Een van de auteurs vat het als volgt samen:
The experiments were run at two Scottish universities. The first experiment involved second-year Psychology students who worked on a report in their first semester. Half of the cohort was randomly assigned to the Grade-before-feedback condition – receiving their grades three days before their feedback – and the other half was assigned to the Feedback-before-grade condition – receiving their feedback three days before their grades. We were interested whether this manipulation would affect a similar future assignment in the second semester.
The second experiment used a bit of a different approach. We assigned an entire student cohort of third-year Psychology students to the temporary mark withholding condition for their report assignment in semester 1 and measured their performance in a similar assignment in semester 2. However, it was important to have a control condition to compare any changes in performance between the two semesters to. We used a historical control for that purpose: As historical control we took the third-year students from the previous year who did not experience mark withholding (marks and individual feedback were released at the same time) and looked at their semester 1 to semester 2 report performance change. In addition to academic performance, we were also able to look at whether students viewed their feedback in semester 1 or not.
Wat blijkt: de leerresultaten werden effectief beter als de resultaten pas een tijdje na de feedback kwamen en afnam als de resultaten eerder of tegelijk kwamen. Wel nog twee praktische tips:
- Be transparent about temporary mark withholding. Explain to your students why you are doing it and set expectations in advance. Tell them exactly when they can expect to receive feedback and their grades.
- Provide students with short feedback engagement tasks after they received their feedback and before their marks are released. This can help students to engage in self-assessment and help them understand their feedback. Here is a blog post with ideas on how to accomplish this.
Abstract van het onderzoek:
Although feedback engagement is important for learning, students often do not engage with provided feedback to inform future assignments. One factor for low feedback uptake is the easy access to grades. Thus, systematically delaying the grade release in favor of providing feedback first—temporary mark withholding—may increase students’ engagement with feedback. We tested the hypothesis that temporary mark withholding would have positive effects on (a) future academic performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and (b) feedback engagement (Experiment 2) in authentic psychology university settings. For Experiment 1, 116 Year 2 students were randomly assigned to either a Grade-before-feedback or Feedback-before-grade condition for their report in semester 1 and performance was measured on a similar assessment in semester 2. In Experiment 2, a Year 3 student cohort (t) was provided with feedback on their lab report before marks were released in semester 1 (mark withholding group, N = 97) and compared to the previous Year 3 cohort (t-1) where individual feedback and grades were released simultaneously (historical control group, N = 90). Using this multi-methodological approach, we reveal positive effects of temporary mark withholding on future academic performance and students’ feedback engagement in authentic higher education settings. Practical implications are discussed.